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Vaccinations

Vaccinations

It would seem - where the myths about vaccinations come from. If people are deprived of reliable information, then there are various speculations, inappropriate fears, everyday thoughts of activists who oppose vaccination.

Not the least role in the emergence of delusions is played by inaction or inadequate work of those who conduct educational work or information campaign. This also applies to doctors, from the district pediatrician to the highest level healthcare workers.

Inadequacy can manifest itself in various forms - from underestimating the importance of the issue, to not understanding the true intelligence of parents, from rejecting modern information channels to providing idealized data that is divorced from life. The main role is given to the relevance of the knowledge of those who should bring people the whole truth about vaccinations. So let's try to consider the main myths about the most famous vaccines and vaccinations.

Newborns from tuberculosis are vaccinated only in Russia. In fact, this vaccine, called BCG, is practiced not only in Russia. As an example, we can cite the United States, where it is administered to newborns and children at risk of tuberculosis, in France - in general to all children under 7 years of age, and in Finland - to newborns. Statistics show that BCG is 80% effective in preventing severe forms of the disease in children, therefore WHO even recommends vaccinating with this vaccine in countries with intensive circulation of microbacteria, which include Russia. BSC vaccine is supplied by UNICEF to many countries for newborns. This is in light of the WHO program for immunization assistance in developing countries.

Vaccines are ineffective; BCG is an example. Unlike other vaccines, BCG is not really 100% effective at preventing TB without actually being a means of controlling infection. That is, BCG, in principle, cannot be required to reduce the incidence. It is even more ridiculous to cite BCG as an example when it comes to vaccines in general. But we cannot ignore the fact that BCG protects 85% of those vaccinated against severe, generalized forms of tuberculosis. And this fact alone justifies the use of the vaccine in Russia, given the high incidence of tuberculosis.

The Mantoux reaction or tuberculin is the same bacteria. In fact, tuberculin is not a vaccine at all and does not contain live bacteria. It contains an extract from microbacteria, which are a mixture of different antigens and a semi-antigen of Koch's bacillus, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Consequently, the Mantoux test is a test of the strength of immunity to tuberculosis, and not a vaccination.

There is no sense at all from Mantoux's test. There is an opinion that the results of the Mantoux test can be influenced by various extraneous factors - from allergies, age, to skin sensitivity, nutrition, etc. Therefore - can they be trusted? But the WHO and the American Academy of Pediatrics consider the Mantoux test to be a very important means of controlling tuberculosis. Indeed, many factors can influence the test result, but this is manifested only in a minority of children. In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is possible to take into account all the factors involved - vaccination history, the presence and nature of the post-vaccination scar on the shoulder, the results of the test itself, repeated tests, the result of the test in another modification (Pirke), this will make it possible to unambiguously determine what the doctor is dealing with - with the post-vaccination whether immunity or tuberculosis.

BCG can fall asleep in the body, waking up later, with stress or weakness in a person, provoking tuberculosis. According to this logic, the entire population of Russia will sooner or later get sick with tuberculosis. Men - after the first exam or military service, and women - after childbirth. In fact, bacteria from BCG in the body do not fall asleep at all, but are absorbed by the immune cells of the skin or are digested by them, perhaps even the independent death of these cells after a while. Sometimes the example is given as an argument with Koch's wand, which can live in the lungs for years. However, the nutrient medium and requirements for the living conditions of bacteria should be considered. The lungs are the ideal breeding ground for bacteria in terms of oxygen availability, nutrition and temperature. But the skin, being essentially a rough connective tissue, is an unimportant breeding ground for microbes, since it does not give them the opportunity to receive either temperature, normal nutrition, or air. There are also cutaneous forms of tuberculosis, but their occurrence is accompanied by severe immunity disorders associated, for example, with AIDS. It is no coincidence that the intradermal method was chosen for BCG inoculation, because this place (skin) is extremely unfortunate for the life and reproduction of microbacteria. The proof of the absence of "falling asleep" of BCG in the skin is the extinction of the tuberculin test several years after vaccination.

BCG can have unpredictable consequences, as bacteria in the body can acquire new properties. The creators of the BCG vaccine in 1921 hardly knew anything about the return of weakened microbes and viruses to virulent properties, since this became known only three decades later. In fact, the reversion of virulent properties is inherent only in viruses that have a high reproduction rate, but bacteria simply die, not having time to form thousands of generations. In addition, for the return of virulent properties, microorganisms must be able to mutate, which is much more inherent in viruses, and not bacteria that mutate for decades. An example is the development of antibiotic resistance in them. With the correct administration of BCG, pulmonary forms of tuberculosis cannot appear as complications, since this requires the penetration of microbacteria into the lungs from the skin, which does not happen in principle.

There are no people with tuberculosis around, which means that there are no infections and it is not necessary to be vaccinated. A person is characterized by such a reaction when they try to protect him from something with which he has not yet encountered. But after all, when a person already has a serious virus, there is no point in preventing the disease and getting vaccinated. So is it worth the wait? For a child, this approach is fraught with the fact that he can simply get over all infections until the mother is convinced that the baby can tolerate hepatitis B, and whooping cough, and tetanus, and tuberculosis ...

Vaccinations destroy natural immunity, which itself fights against many diseases. In this matter, it is customary to refer to certain scientists whom, no doubt, no one has seen. In fact, there is no natural specific immunity that is directed against specific bacteria and viruses at all. Indeed, the body has congenital nonspecific mechanisms, for example, the formation of interferon, but humans do not have innate immunity against hepatitis B, influenza, tetanus. Otherwise, why would vaccinations be needed at all?

It is better to postpone vaccinations to a child until the immune system matures, since immunity is transmitted to him with mother's milk for the entire period of feeding. The T-cell link of the immune system fully completes its development only by the age of 5, and begins to work for the first time only at a year and a half. So what - not getting vaccinated until 5 years old? Or maybe during this period you should help the baby to overcome infections, if his body does not yet have such capabilities? It would be a mistake to consider that immunity is transmitted to the child during breastfeeding, the fact is that the baby receives immunity from the mother, while still in her womb during pregnancy. Thus, a child can get immunity from rubella, chickenpox, measles and other diseases, if the mother possessed it, it is no coincidence that up to the age of one year, they are not vaccinated against these infections at all. The fact is that the mother's immunity can inactivate a live vaccine before it is triggered. With breast milk, few antibodies are transmitted and this is not enough to protect against infections transmitted by airborne droplets. This is due to the fact that antibodies do not enter the baby's airways, being digested in the intestines. Breastfeeding in any case cannot protect against infections, since it is impossible to determine the exact quantity and quality of antibodies. And if this myth were true, would babies have whooping cough or flu?

With vaccinations, you should wait at least up to a year. The question immediately arises - why not until three or five? What is remarkable is the one-year-old baby, because changes in the child's immunity significantly appear at 1.5 years and at 5 years. So what is worth waiting for, because the risk of meeting infections that could be excluded by vaccinations is very high - at least in a children's clinic from a child with whooping cough. Tetanus sticks are common and live very well in the intestines of humans with good survival abilities. In the case of polio, a child can get the vaccine virus from those children who are already vaccinated, and the results can be dire. It should be mentioned that the dosages of antigens in the DPT and ADS vaccines are very high, they are designed for the child's weak immune system in order to wake it up and get a minimum of side reactions. This is taken into account when developing the vaccination calendar, in Russia this vaccine is not given to children over 4 years old, and in France - over 6. Therefore, with the transfer of all vaccinations to the second or subsequent years of life, the risk of adverse reactions only increases.

Ideally, it is necessary to draw up individual vaccination cards for each child so as not to destroy the natural immunity. In order to draw up an immune blood map based on existing methods, you will need about 50 ml of blood - try to imagine the procedure for collecting it from a three-month-old baby. But, as we found out, there is no specific immunity at all, and only the immunity transferred from the mother against a number of diseases remains. And the cost of such a study is quite high, about $ 200. Does it make sense to spend such an amount in conditions when there are no ready-made antibodies in the child's body yet?

It is better to administer vaccines separately, rather than together, then it will be easier for the body to cope with bacteria. In this case, we will not talk about exotic vaccines like Tuleremia. Live bacteria are introduced only in the case of the BCG vaccine, therefore it is generally inappropriate to talk about the summation of bacteria. The immune system generally has the properties of multitasking, since due to different elements and their independence from each other, it is able to "work" simultaneously on different tasks without prejudice to each. Scientists have conducted research by calculating the number of immune cells in the body, the speed of their reproduction. It was found that human immunity can fully and efficiently process about 10 thousand antigens. But such an amount is never administered to a person, even in the first year of his life, when the number of vaccinations is maximum. Today there is a tendency in the world to create polyvalent drugs, so in 2000 in Europe the hexavalent vaccine "Hexavac" was registered. In Europe and America, the pentavalent drugs Pentavac and Pentacel are generally widespread. It should be noted also the fact that in such preparations there is always less ballast substances than in vaccines separately.

In the 1990s, there was a wave of diphtheria diseases among the vaccinated. Some sources even cite figures of 85% among cases of vaccination. However, official sources indicate just the opposite - most of the patients either were not vaccinated on time, or missed the routine vaccination. This is exactly the picture among adults, while among children with vaccinations, the situation was much better. Most of the patients had contact with the "exporters" of diphtheria from the South Asian region of the CIS, where vaccination with the collapse of the USSR has ceased to pay attention at all. Today, even in developed countries, the coverage among the adult population with ADS-M vaccinations is about 30%, and we are not even talking about the timeliness of vaccination.

In the first year of life, children cannot get hepatitis B. Vaccination against hepatitis B is attributed to risk groups, including drug addicts, homosexuals, prisoners, etc. It would seem - where does the children? The risks of getting a virus can be divided into three groups. Firstly, these are medical manipulations involving contact with blood. Secondly, sexual contact, thirdly, household contact with carriers (including combs, toys, contact during childbirth with the mother's blood). And this threat is not funny, because in Moscow this virus is carried by up to 8% of the population. If a child develops hepatitis B in the first year of life, then with almost 100% probability he becomes a distributor of the infection and its chronic carrier. Vaccination will give the confidence to protect the baby from the virus for at least the next 15 years. Can parents be sure that someone from their environment is not among the carriers of the virus? And it is better to get vaccinated early, since the younger the age, the more effective the hepatitis vaccine works.

Many do not get vaccinated at all and do not get sick at the same time. It would be a mistake to think that the 10-30 people you know are the measure of the health of the whole nation. For comparison, it is necessary to take into account groups that are the same in age, sex, the presence of pathologies, the degree of risk of infection and other factors. Otherwise, the comparison is incomparable. If we conduct a study according to all standards, it turns out that even for simple flu with good and timely vaccination, the risk is reduced by 2-4 times, this has been proven by hundreds of studies around the world. On the other hand, in Moscow, few people are vaccinated against hepatitis A, and few people get sick with it, but the urgency of this disease is extremely low. But if a comparison is made in a region where hepatitis A is common, it turns out that only unvaccinated people get sick with it, the question of the need for vaccination will disappear by itself.

Live vaccines only litter the body with strains that are unnatural for nature. Unlike natural viruses, vaccine microorganisms are completely devoid of dangerous properties, not being able to cause disease in humans, and do not give him the opportunity to infect others. The variant of the virus that is present in the vaccine, in fact, is only able to form immunity. Therefore, vaccine viruses of rubella or measles are not transmitted from person to person, mass vaccination does not cause epidemics of vaccine diseases. Inoculated microorganisms live for five days, as with a common infection. There are no vaccine viruses in nature that would live in the body for a long time after vaccination. And what would then be the point in vaccination, which would cause a chronic infection. In fact, this rule, like any other, has its exceptions. For example, the live polio vaccine OPV, from which the spread of viruses from vaccinated to others is possible, although it is extremely rare. There are isolated cases of persistence of the virus from OPV for many years, but all of these cases were associated with the presence of immunodeficiency. But the more modern inactivated polyvaccine lacks such features.Other exceptions may be associated with gross violations of the technique of vaccinations, as well as rarely used vaccines against anthrax and tularemia, which can give infection by contact, smallpox vaccine, which, however, has not been used in Russia for 20 years already. About the clogging of the biosphere and speech it cannot be, because according to the theory of evolution, weakened individuals in the environment do not survive. Weakened under-virus vaccines simply cannot clog the biosphere, since, in principle, they are deprived of the ability to spread.

DTP vaccination causes many complications. This vaccination is given to children against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, accompanied by high fever in children, sleepless nights, and tears. First of all, it should be noted that some children have no negative manifestations at all. And side events after vaccination are usually divided into normal reactions, severe reactions and complications. It is considered an absolutely normal reaction to increase the temperature after vaccination, as well as its increase in acute respiratory infections. Indeed, the body secretes special substances - cytokines and other intermediary substances of the inflammatory-immune system, which reacts to vaccination or infection. The fact that the temperature rises just indicates that the immune reaction has started, that is, such a sign is not only normal, but even favorable in terms of the development of immunity. Do not confuse complications with normal reactions. Anaphylactic shock, of course, cannot be considered the norm, but an increase in temperatures to subfebrile numbers cannot be mistaken for complications either. In its pure form, complications are extremely rare in general, common side reactions are ten times more frequent. Yes, and control over the quality of the vaccine is still carried out, if complications for it are quite frequent, then the drug is simply removed from production until repeated studies are carried out.

Only adolescents are vaccinated against hepatitis B, as it is dangerous for children. One cannot be guided by doubts alone, otherwise the production of cars should also be stopped, as there are doubts about their safety. And vaccination of adolescents cannot be considered a refusal to vaccinate infants. Just the same little children are vaccinated in Russia almost without exception. And there is no point in talking about fears or suspicions, the development of hepatitis B in the world today has gone so far that there is no time to wait 13 years to vaccinate a teenager. The age of 13 was not chosen by chance - it was at this time that many begin to get acquainted with sex life, drugs. Ideally, both children in the first year of life and adolescents should be vaccinated, but financing such a program becomes a problem. Today, vaccinations against hepatitis B are included in the vaccination schedules of all more or less developed countries, this is the best evidence of the recognition of vaccinations as a successful measure for controlling the disease.

Monitoring the quality of the vaccine after its application testifies to their experimentation. According to this myth, experiments are often carried out on us, on our children, in order to find out the nature and number of complications after vaccination. Let us recall the procedure for registration and development of a vaccine both in our country and abroad. During phase I, clinical trials are carried out on animals, during phase II, the vaccine is tested on patients at risk for the disease, the experiments are completed by phase III, during which the vaccine is tested on a large number of healthy people. Usually, their number can reach several tens of thousands, at all stages people are informed about participation in experiments, the research protocol is approved by the ethical committee. The successful completion of all stages of the study by the drug allows you to apply for registration of the vaccine in the country in which it was developed. That is, the registration of the vaccine actually indicates that all tests are completed, nothing unexpected by the observer can be expected. Post-registration research is carried out for the vaccine by state bodies and scientific organizations, but this is not an observation of the course of the experiment, but quality control that is carried out for all pharmacological drugs in general. Auto giants and food manufacturers are also monitoring the quality of their products. Often, only after the mass introduction of a car or medicine are rare features revealed, but for a long time people have been successfully using these products, so there can be no question of any deliberate testing on people.

It is as easy as shelling pears to register a vaccine in Russia, there is no need to conduct clinical trials. It should be said that the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision does not participate in the registration of vaccines, they are registered by the Ministry of Health. The Tarasevich Institute is responsible for quality control of imported vaccines and testing them. To be registered in Russia, an imported vaccine must be registered in the country of origin and have experience in its use there. We have already discussed the registration process above. In Europe, the most serious approach to this issue. As a proof of the myth, the fact of vaccination of adolescents in Perm with the Rudivax vaccine is cited, which supposedly was some kind of experiment. In fact, an innovation was the very fact that an imported vaccine was used against rubella. The very same "Rudivax" has been used since 1968 in more than 70 countries, during this time about 75 million doses were introduced. And at the time of application, the vaccine had already been registered in Russia. We are just 30 years behind the world.

Combination mumps, rubella and measles (MMR) vaccines can cause autism. Another scarecrow that made a lot of noise after the publication of the English doctor Wakefield. The doctor concluded that of the 170 children he observed, in a certain majority, this combination vaccination, especially the measles component, was the cause of autism. Remarkably absurd doctor's suggestion to apply the same vaccinations separately, including against measles. However, the doctor's bold assumptions were not confirmed by scientists, so first the UK Ministry of Health, and then the WHO, publicly denied these allegations. Wakefield's work was called unscientific, as gross violations were found in the research methods. However, the myth created panic among parents, which led to a drop in vaccination coverage and a sharp increase in the incidence of mumps.


Watch the video: How do vaccines help babies fight infections? How Vaccines Work (June 2021).