Breast cancer

Breast cancer

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Breast cancer is a malignant tumor of the breast tissue. The number of such diseases in developed countries has increased sharply after the 70s of the 20th century, which is associated with the changed conditions of the lifestyle, including the reduction in breastfeeding.

Breast cancer can occasionally occur in men as well, and mentions of this disease are found in ancient Egypt more than 3000 years ago. Most women superstitiously dismiss fearful thoughts of diseases such as breast cancer. But this carelessness can lead to the fact that in the face of danger, a person will be unprepared and helpless.

Therefore, the more information about a given threat and the more actively counteraction to its occurrence, the more chances are not to face this disease at all. In this matter, frankness and directness are better than idle fictions, which we will consider.

Breast cancer myths

The harbinger of breast cancer is mastopathy. This disease is a benign tumor of the mammary glands, the main cause of which is hormonal imbalance in the woman's body. The occurrence of fibrocystic mastopathy does not in any way affect the subsequent occurrence of a malignant formation, although some forms of such a disease can further develop into cancer, therefore, it is still worth a full-scale examination by a mammologist with mastopathy.

If the chest hurts before menstruation, then this is a clear sign of mastopathy. This can only be true if breast tenderness is observed long before menstruation. Chest pain is normal a few days before your period. If discomfort is regularly observed a week or two before menstruation, while the pain is severe, then you should immediately consult a doctor. However, such a symptom may have another explanation - the spine, or rather, its thoracic region, may be to blame. If nodules or lumps, swelling and discharge from the nipple are found on the chest, then this is also a reason to consult a doctor. It should only be noted that the vast majority of these symptoms are not associated with breast cancer.

Cancer can develop with hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. In fact, modern contraceptives contain a small dose of hormones directly. If taken correctly, the risk is really small, so it is necessary to use these funds taking into account the female age, the state of the endocrine system, hormonal levels, etc. In general, the intake of such drugs should be agreed with an endocrinologist-gynecologist. Studies have shown that hormone replacement therapy does increase the risk of breast cancer. This treatment is prescribed for women during menopause to reduce their risk of heart disease and osteoporosis. However, the danger arises only if the medication has been taken for over 10 years.

The implantation of silicone prostheses in the breast can cause at least mastopathy, and at most - cancer. This statement is incorrect. Before the operation, a thorough examination is usually carried out, which includes mammography or ultrasound of the mammary glands, consultation with a mammologist. Plastic surgery is performed only if no neoplasms or seals are found. So there are no risks and consequences in this area.

Mammography done to women under 40 increases the risk of cancer. Such a study does not pose any danger, since the radiation from a mammogrof is comparable to the radiation from a two-hour stay on the beach. It should be borne in mind that mammography, ideally, is done only once a year, so it does not cause any harm. Women under 35 are more often prescribed an ultrasound of the mammary glands, but not because such an examination is less harmful, but because of the greater information content of such an examination in comparison with mammography. The structure of the mammary gland changes after 40 years, and in such cases it is more effective to examine it with mammography.

It is useless to do mammograms every year because cancer develops much more rapidly. It won't have time to make any major changes in a year. Therefore, examination of women under 35 with ultrasound, and after 40 - with mammography is the most reliable prophylactic measure.

Endoprosthetics will complicate the diagnosis of breast cancer. Modern ultrasound diagnostic devices allow you to see neoplasms up to 3 mm in size, in addition, it is possible to assess how well a given area is supplied with blood. Silicone does not interfere with the detection and viewing of a suspicious nodule. Manual breast examination with implants is even more convenient.

Genetic causes are a major risk factor for cancer. Indeed, doctors consider such reasons to be among the main ones. Much depends on the degree of kinship and the age of family members in which the cancer developed. A predisposition to malignant tumors can be inherited not only from the mother, but also from other maternal relatives. The risk is higher the closer the relationship is. An alarming sign is that two close relatives, for example, a sister and a mother, have cancer at once, as well as the fact that they had the disease even before menopause. In such a situation, the risk can increase 9 times. If relatives of the second degree of kinship - a grandmother or an aunt - were ill with breast cancer, then the risk increases by one and a half times, and even then, if the disease occurs in youth. The onset of cancer in them after menopause should not at all be perceived as a genetic threat to other generations. And the main factor for the occurrence of breast cancer is not heredity at all, but the mutation of certain genes. With the help of a special genetic composition of the blood, these genes can be identified, if they are detected, the risk of the disease can be up to 80%. For such women, doctors strongly recommend giving birth to a baby as early as possible and removing the breast tissue, replacing them with implants. Breast cancer also has less significant factors of occurrence: alcohol consumption, infertility, late childbirth, early menstruation (up to 12 years of age), obesity, and endocrine system pathologies. The presence of one of these causes can increase the likelihood of the disease by up to 1.5-2 times.

Cancer risk arises from refusal to breastfeed or abortion. There is no reliable data on this issue, but it has been proven that every year of breastfeeding reduces the risk of illness in a woman by 4.5%.

Breast cancer is incurable. This myth is the most terrible, but depending on the timing of the disease, breast cancer is treatable. If you find it in the early stages, then the effectiveness of the cure is estimated at 90%. However, this myth appeared due to the fact that half of women deal with their problems too late. In Russia, therefore, the statistics are rather sad - within five years after the discovery of breast cancer, almost 50% of women die. In the West, everything is more optimistic - 80% of women diagnosed with breast cancer live more than 10 years. And the main thing in this difference is not so much the high foreign level of medicine, but the widespread use of health programs that promote the prevention of diseases.

Watch the video: Spot Breast Cancer Early. Cancer Research UK (August 2022).