By the end of the second trimester: height - 30-33 cm, weight - 900-950 g.
After all the hardships, ailments and worries of the first trimester, the second trimester seems like a truly blessed time. In this regard, the child is growing rapidly.
From the 22nd week of pregnancy, in the event of a premature birth, a child weighing more than 500 g has some chances to survive provided timely resuscitation and subsequent intensive care.
The child's skeleton is well-formed and even quite well overgrown with muscles and a little fat. From 18-20 weeks, the mother can feel the child's movements, although in fact he began to actively move at the end of the last trimester.
But now the baby is big enough to make mom feel her movements. At the same time, the sex of the child can be determined with almost 100% accuracy.
The brain receives a cortex, which has grooves and convolutions. It is this part of the brain that is responsible for the behavior of the future person, the ability to adapt to the environment and the ability to adequately and consciously respond to what is happening around him.
At the same time, the baby acquires all the senses and begins to react to his environment. Tactile (skin) sensitivity appeared at the end of the first trimester. In the fourth month, taste buds develop in the oral cavity, in the fifth month, the baby receives a vestibular apparatus, and by the end of the trimester, sense of smell, vision and hearing are formed.
True, the baby does not have to use the sense of smell, since his nose is closed with a mucous plug. But he hears a variety of sounds - the beating of his mother's heart, conversations around her, music and other sounds. He also discerns light that weakly penetrates into the womb through her body.
The kid can not only move. He already knows how to sleep and dream, suck his thumb, blink and even frown and cry in displeasure.
Kidneys, intestines, stomach, gall bladder are fully formed and ready to work. In the intestines, the baby's first feces, meconium, are even formed, and the kidneys begin to excrete urine, although the placenta now belongs to the main function of removing waste products.
The endocrine system is completely ready for work by the end of the trimester. The pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, thyroid gland are already functioning.
Finally, the child begins to make the first breathing movements. This is not yet real breathing (the baby swallows amniotic fluid), but in this way the lungs prepare for the next first spontaneous inhalation.
The baby's thin skin is covered with a special lubricant that protects the skin from damage, and the original lanugo fluff. Now the baby is still shriveled and red, but by the end of the trimester, subcutaneous fat begins to accumulate. By the time of delivery, the baby will turn into a plump and beautiful pink baby.
Critical days for the second trimester occur at 18-22 weeks. At this moment, there is a rapid growth of the uterus and there is a danger of detachment of the placenta or its incorrect presentation. This can cause late miscarriage or premature labor.
Weight gain by the end of the trimester is 7-7.5 kg compared to the pre-pregnancy period. The height of the uterine fundus is 26 cm.
Most women feel great in the second trimester. Toxicosis is coming to an end, the tummy is not too heavy to interfere with movement, but it is noticeable enough that people around you finally begin to give way in public transport and, in general, treats you like a pregnant woman.
Despite the fact that you feel good, you need to continue to drink vitamins and be vigilant about your health.
By mid-trimester, you will need special maternity clothing that does not restrict your waist and belly. It is also advisable to give up shoes with heels. Your shoes or boots should be very soft, comfortable, and not crushing your feet. Please note that from the second trimester you may experience swelling, sometimes your legs swell up quite a lot.
Significant changes are taking place in the body of the expectant mother. Her blood volume increases by 40%, her heart slightly increases and even slightly changes position. There is a risk of anemia if you are iron deficient. Therefore, it is necessary to take blood tests and monitor the level of hemoglobin.
By the end of the trimester, the Braxton Hicks (Braxtons) training fights begin for the first time. These are not real contractions yet, as they are irregular, inconsistent and not increasing. Braxtons are used to prepare your uterus for the coming birth. The skin becomes drier, stretch marks appear on the abdomen and thighs, and sweating may increase.
Reorganization of the breast glands begins. The baby actively produces special hormones that stimulate lactation. Therefore, the breasts swell, and in the second trimester, colostrum - first milk - begins to be produced in them. At first, quite a bit, and the closer to childbirth, the more.
Due to the fact that the pressure of the growing uterus on the internal organs increases, heartburn, constipation and even hemorrhoids may increase. Other problems include nosebleeds due to drying out of the mucous membrane and milky-white vaginal discharge caused by hormonal changes.
More serious complications are:
- vaginal bleeding;
- late miscarriage;
- premature birth.
In case of high blood pressure, weakness, changes in blood sugar levels, any type of scarlet or dark-colored bleeding from the vagina, any kind of pain in the lower abdomen, lower back, hips, sacrum, be sure to call your doctor.
Remember that a late miscarriage noticed in time can be prevented and there is a chance to carry a baby. If there is a premature birth (after 22 weeks), in the case of properly provided resuscitation and the absence of birth defects, the child has a chance to survive.
Be extremely careful about your health and the health of your child. Take vitamins regularly and see your doctor. From 20 weeks to 30 weeks of pregnancy, you need to see a doctor at least once every two weeks.
The test schedule for the second trimester is as follows:
- "triple test for congenital defects (AFP, estriol, hCG) - 16-17 weeks;
- clinical blood test 16-17, 20, 24 weeks;
- blood biochemistry - 24 weeks;
- general urine analysis 16-17, 20, 24 weeks;
- gynecological smear 16-17 weeks;
- hemostasiogram with D-dimer (blood clotting test) - 20 weeks;
- Doppler ultrasound - 20-22 weeks.
1st trimester - 2nd trimester - 3rd trimester